Machines on the visible web use standard web protocol HTTP / HTTPS to communicate with each other. The dark webs are computer networks that communicate using their own protocols incorporating features that allow its users to remain anonymous.
In the following, we will make a Overview of Darknets protocols.
Developed in the early 2000s, Tor was created for US military use, primarily the Navy, in order to hide their IP addresses and prevent the theft of sensitive data during missions. After the military switched to other anonymous systems, TOR was released as free software.
This is a computer network that guarantees the anonymity of its users through multi-layered encryption.
User traffic passes through several relays. It is encrypted at each step. The user can thus:
- surf without being tracked by the websites he consults,
- bypass blockages imposed by access providers or governments,
- publish material while maintaining its anonymity.
Also released in the 2000s, Freenet was created with the same goal as Tor: allow freedom of expression and total information based on the security of anonymity.
It allows you to share files, but also to browse and create "FreeSites", accessible only via Freenet.
It can be used in two different ways: in an open network or in an invisible network, the user only connects to users he knows, which makes his actions almost impossible to detect.
Like torrent systems, each user brings the network to life by providing two things:
- of the bandwidth,
- and storage space.
The least wanted files are regularly destroyed, while the most popular are backed up. This makes deleting sensitive information virtually impossible: as long as it is shared, it remains accessible. It also makes unimaginable government takeover and censorship the data is encrypted, saved in several places that would be extremely difficult to locate.
The only catch with Freenet is that it is a bit difficult to set up and use, which can put the brakes on less tech-savvy users.
I2P is a network which provides anonymous and encrypted communications. It was originally a modification of Freenet, but I2P quickly became an independent project, still in development today.
The anonymity of the user is guaranteed, as well as that of the recipient, which allows communicate completely anonymously, none of the participants can be identified.
I2P mainly offers several applications which are able to communicate with each other from end to end without leaving this subnet:
- BitTorrent client,
- instant messaging,
- IRC client
- creation of forums
- system of shared storage.
It is the number of users that will increase the quality of their protection. The higher the traffic, the more complex it will be to identify a user - and therefore costly for the entity that needs it.